Prof. Robert Weiner: The Origins of World War II

All right ladies and gentlemen and others. What are others? I don’t know. Just to make sure… This one is exquisite. I’m halfway
through it, and it was published in 2007. Bernard Wasserstein – Barbarism and
Civilization. He knows the names of people and places I’ve never heard of. I mean he…this this is so detailed and well put together. Now you got to have a reading stand
for it because it’s too heavy. Okay? Alright, so it uh… But as narrative and analytical
history, it’s absolutely wonderful. Niall Ferguson, The War of the World. Um, also remarkable. And, umm… What he adds to Wasserstein is his is
more global. …Hi! How are you? Good… good. — His is more global. Uhh, so he does more in Asia and things like that. Equally well written. Uh, he makes a
lot of moral judgments. Um, he tells you things that make it
hard to sleep at night. Um, because he shares the blame very
very, very widely… …uh, in terms of things that happened
before and during World War II. Uh, and umm, …it’s very, very powerful stuff. [inaudible] Uh like water… W-A-S-S-E-R. Vasser…Oh,
German water. …and stien S-T-I-E-N …and Ferguson. Now this guy is a turkey. He, he would, he would be
someone like um… oh, Ted Koppel let’s say or… uh, or any of the real important… Diane Sawyer. Takes a year off… goes all over Europe and writes the book that does two things at the same time. On the one hand it is a history of the twentieth-century. And on the other hand, it’s a history of the present. So in each each place he
goes to he meets the children or the
grandchildren of historical actors from the earlier
time period. Whether they’re [inaudible] officers or whatever …and interviews them and he intertwines the present and the
past in an exquisite way. Okay? It’s very, very
well written and very well translated. He apparently is one of the great Dutch journalists of this generation. And this book it’s Hert – G-E-E-R-T Mak. M-A-K …and it’s now in paperback also. Here’s the book I kept on referring to yesterday but had at home… Modris Eksteins’s “The Rights of Spring” …this is difficult. A lot of
psycho-cultural history. He makes some claims that are
undoubtedly over the top but in getting deep below the surface he brings up issues and questions that
are truly, truly extraordinary. So it’s very, very much worth
looking at. If you really serious about it – it’s a
challenge. Um, and one of the most wonderful things
about Lafayette students Um… I use this about eight, nine years ago for the first time
and had to discontinue using it because it was too difficult. And now I began using it about four
years ago… five years ago… and students frequently
say it’s the best book in the class. So, the quality of our students has changed so much over the last 10
years that [inaudible] okay all you’re gonna get over it… I’m roasting you guys tonight! You’ll get… I’ll…no, no, no, no, no. I’m giving up giving you the evaluation
tonight. So, uh, it’s…E-K-S-T-I-E-N-S and again, he’s written one powerful book after another. Now, I know the some of these youngsters lecturing have dazzled you with technology and stuff like that and I can’t do that.
Alright? I go into every class and I let the
students know that I am a dinosaur. I wanted to look up
something… I can’t even look at things on the
computer… I need a secretary…I need a wife! Okay. I have a wife! It’s been forty-six years! She can do this stuff …I do some of it. I
do email – I mean I’m on email – I get email from all over the world… but I’m really, really a technophobe. But
I do know how to use – even in the summer – the photocopy machine upstairs. You should see what happens when Don Miller comes late before class and he has to photocopy something. He runs in my office…”How do you use it?” — I’m glad he’s around because he’s the only one — well he’s gone beyond me on many many up other technical levels but not the photocopy machine. I’m really… I thought you were doing so well that
you deserve some handouts. Okay? Oh, I hope there are enough here. And this
is gonna be the second part of a, of our discussion today. Alright. Here we go. I’m sorry,
I was gonna say send them across. Okay. I didn’t give directions. I didn’t
give directions. I was going across. How many people are here? We’re not over
50? Alright, then there are enough. Then there are enough. Because I made
over 50. Alright. I’m gonna… Just because your sitting alone… [Laughing][inaudible] Uh… They’re gonna come. Send all the
extras this way please. All the extras, going this way. All the
way back to ah…Professor Kelliher back there. Ahh…Bill Kelliher… …such a sweetheart. How did you ever get
to be a judge? I mean… I am, I am, really happy… …playing cards… you’re good poker player. For Dick Sharpless to come in on a day
off to see a former student… which he did to see you… is really, really, wonderful. Do you have any questions from yesterday
before we begin? Who won the war? Okay…uh, I answered that yesterday… I said If you had to have a winner it was America …but, I always say there were no
victors. They were equally maimed… and European
Civilization was the loser. And world civilization was the loser. Umm, and then I will always put in that
caveat… that European self-destruction made it
easier for places in which Europe was dominant to achieve their independence. So maybe someone sitting in Africa or Asia was a winner. Okay… it depends how
you play at all out. Umm, and as an acceleration of history… umm, it certainly got women out of the
home more quickly even though a lot of their gains that
they made were taken away after the war up by fascist like and other dictatorial regimes that
wanted to go back to a more hierarchical view of society. A more traditional view of society. Uhh, but I believe really everyone was a
victim and civilization was a victim and one of the great tragedies is
that uh, Europeans that… never before had so many people lived
well. At that time period… never before had so
many people lived well… in Europe. Europe was really, really
progressing. but at the same time as progressing
there was a level of sneakiness when it came to the
acceptance of violence and war and manhood and all of those kinds of things.
Irrationality… the growth of irrationality as part of the modernist cultural moment uh, that was at odds with all this
material prosperity that had developed over time and was
beginning to seep toward Eastern Europe as well, but far too
slowly. But again that’s just Europe. So this
Western Europe, Central Europe umm, minority part of the world was doing much better as we were in the
United States. So no one won in Europe, and the
United States emerged at the center of the world… umm, economically not yet culturally but
economically and financially… we were the greatest debtor nation going
into the war. We left the war as the greatest creditor
nation. The European powers were creditor nations. They all left as debtor
nations… and that was one of the issues about the
Treaty of Versailles. They had imposed these reparation
payments on Germany mostly, but some of the other a German
allies but are all the European countries
owed up billions of dollars to the United States… and uh, as one president said “Well they loaned it didn’t they?” Umm, we weren’t willing to cancel our
debts. We weren’t ready for a Marshall Plan. We needed a Marshall Plan. We got a
Marshall Plan after World War II partly because we didn’t get a Marshall
Plan after World War I. And what happened after World War II is
that States people caught up with this historical time warp and
realized that giving money away to get other
people back on their feet was cheap compared to dealing with the savagery that might develop
they didn’t get back on their feet. So this was a major step forward in our
in our State’s statesmanship. Other questions, at all? No need to be… I’m just…just wanna see… if anythings hanging over there. Pardon? [inaudible] Um, nothing works everywhere, every time. Everything is knowing the moment. And someone else asked the question
yesterday which it ties into this which is… “What do you learn from all that?” Well, you learn that there are some generalities and
then there’s the real world and you have to always be case-specific. So umm, we can fix all the worlds
problems and those states… statesmanship is
knowing what we can fiction what we can fix… …and then we take our licks and we decide
well, do we really trust these people who we’ve elected or do we not trust these
people who we’ve elected? Whose full-time job is to
make those decisions and then if we are out of accord with them we call them on the carpet. But… umm, it doesn’t always work and sometimes it does work. Other questions? Yes, please! Tangential question.. [inaudible] No! I’m not qualified to do it! I can. [inaudible] Ummm…is Andy Fix and he fixes everything. [inaudible] That was Geez and I was the
diplomacy guy and and Gee was the intellectual
history… and, and this is interesting because um,
I love intellectual history but if you’re not really, really trained in it
it’s extremely difficult you have to go all the way back to the
classics. It’s a different… …it’s intellectual history, cultural history.
Umm, even, even the other “isms” that you deal with… the other… departments you deal with are different
like…ecology or stuff like that …so I, I do, I do play with that but I
will admit when I’m teaching something that I’m… You know…I’m learning it with you and that’s the way we go together. Is that course is still around? That course is still around. That’s Andy Fix. It’s a two-semester course – umm, intellectual history from Platto
to NATO or something like that. [laugh] [inaudible] All the way down hill… that’s a
mixed metaphor. [inaudible] That’s mine… Albert Gendebien gave me that course
good for 1850 to the present. That’s, that’s what
he gave to me and then my specialty is um, modern French history, um, modern Jewish history… um, Holocaust origins of World War I
World War II. Um, again, I’ve taught middle east, I
taught the nuclear arms race when it looked real real ugly in the nineteen
eighties are and I do use a lot of literature in
my courses that’s another thing we use a lot of literature in courses. So
on in a 19th century course they will read [inaudible] and “The Heart of Darkness” by Conrad and um, the other thing that we do now is um… I use sometimes three full volumes
of documents… in one course. So they may get a set of
documents that thick and so a lot of the intellectual history is
in those documents… So, I’m kidding of course I teach it. But, it’s not, not, not as a specialty
and, and, uh, you’ll find out how little [inaudible] I know
by the third question. You know. …Other questions? Okay. Well, today’s comments are going to
be divided into two parts… the first is more analytical and the
second…I have to borrow this… without that I can’t do anything. No… I’m kidding. I have my own copy. I do…You scared me when I saw
that I have my own copy. Alright… …and I did that by heart. Also… you can
see how messy it is. It’s recent. I did it by heart. Um, the first set of comments are going to
be more analytical and then we’ll do a time line which is
what you have in front of you and talk about how the developments in the
nineteen thirties actually preceded. And the first part
will be more analytical… um, some of it a recapping. Some other
things we talked about last class. Um, what are the basic structural, uh, issues all the nineteen thirties in
diplomacy? Diplomacy in the nineteen thirties… how
did Adolf Hitler take a downtrodden Germany in 1933, um… all the way to a dominant – the
dominant European power by 1939 – without shedding that much blood? At least his blood. The blood of his
opponent’s, yes. But, actually… um, it is one of the most radical diplomatic
and military revolutions in world history. Especially considering, um, the fact
that Germany with still fairly well demilitarized and its enemies were more militarized and could
have stopped him at any number of moments. So we want to look at a number a general
themes first and then look at that timeline and, and
see where it takes us. Now the first of these “Stiens” is that domestic and international issues were intertwined continually. You can’t study the foreign policy without studying the domestic politics everywhere and in each particular place and in terms of the domestic politics laying over from yesterday, um… the
single most important issues were the continued, long-term, impact of World War I and then the more immediate impact of
the Great Depression… Which struck all the European nations
between 1929 and 1933 and without which Adolf Hitler would
never have been able to come into power. And we’ll talk more
about that when we talk about Adolf Hitler. No depression, no Adolf Hitler. He had a political party. It had representatives in the Reichstag. But it only had twelve representatives
in a body of over 600 seats. And then it went from 12 to 107 to
230 in succeeding elections… boom, boom, boom, and on the left the
communists did the same thing and all of a sudden the middle trial can
all you have is the extremes really left um, because up the depression and the hopelessness of people during that time. Real hopelessness. Um, your a class in
Germany of graduating seniors at the University …and remember it’s the elites who to went to the universities at that time… um, you know, sixty-percent are gonna be
unemployed. Forty-percent of all Germans are
unemployed by 1933. That’s that’s a lot of people… …and the unions and the government had
very, very finite benefits. So the benefits ran out.. I bet many have you know people whose unemployment benefits now have right now and who’ve had to take early Social Security to pay the bills and it’s not funny. It’s really, really, sad. And this is nothing compared to what
it was like during the Great Depression. So, whenever you ask yourself, “Why did
Britain do this?” or “Why did France do that?” …ask yourself…What was happening in
Britain or France during that time period? What was most
important to them? And, the answer in many cases is going to
be local politics and economics. Um, they just cant get beyond that. They
can’t see the forest from the trees or the trees
from the forest. They just can’t focus well because they have so many other things that they’re dealing with. The world is divided between the haves
and the have-nots nations. And, especially Europe is divided
between the have and the have-not nations. And the haves favor the status quo they favor stability. Your two most predominant haves are
Britain and France. The whole diplomatic system rests on
Britain and France. They basically would like
things to stay pretty much the same although they have
different opinions with respect to Germany and I’ll speak
more about that in a minute or two. But then, you’re facing on different levels a whole series of irredentist nations. Of nations who think they have been wronged. Of nations who think they deserve more and they want to change the status quo and they you want to do that either by
negotiation or by force if necessary Now clearly, no Germany considering its centrality its
industrial capacity its population was going to accept the long-term, in the long term the Treaty of Versailles provisions. So I always say it’s not whether – it’s when. The Treaty of Versailles was going to be changed. They would have had to have renegotiated Germany could not be kept down. When it
was brought back into the family of nations it was bound to regain some of the
losses it had from World War I. It was so it was simply too powerful to be kept down. And even the German states people who
favored doing it peacefully favored doing it. So Germany is dissatisfied with its
plight. Understandably so. Italy under Mussolini is revisionist. And when we get into that timeline, Italy is gonna cause a problem. It had already caused problems in 1920’s but they were taken care of rather easily. But in the 1930’s is gonna
cause a real problem because Italy could have been an allie. against Germany. The Italians were not pro German. They had fought the Germans. The Italians did not like the Germans. The Germans did not like the Italians. Okay? But, Mussolini’s irredentist, over-inflated, ego in which he wanted more, more colonies,
forced him later into the arms of Hitler Japan wanted more as well. And could not be depended on
deeply to reserved the status quo. And some other things Japan wanted
should turn all of us red with shame. Because Japan wanted a racial equality
clause inserted in the League of Nations
comment. And even Wilson wouldn’t accept that.
Okay? Because we were to racist for that. Now the Japanese were racists too
within the Asians sphere… looking down other Asians. And later they began to look down on
whites also, and everybody else but themselves So by the 1930’s the people in power in
Japan – most of the military – in some way we’re a mirror image – not
quite as radical – but somewhat of a mirror image or what was
going on in Germany at that time. And they were revisionists. And the
Russians were revisionists. We talk about the map the other day look.
Look how nice and fat it is here… it’s trimmed down over here a little bit.
A lot, actually. They weren’t as irredentist as others. But, you couldn’t count on the Russians
really as yet for the status quo. However that’s just the beginning a bit.
All these little folks had minorities belonging to their
neighbors in their territory. And all these little folks wanted more So when it came time to pull apart, pull
apart Poland, Hungry wanna piece of Poll’. Okay? When it came time to pull apart any
these other states other or small countries wanted part of those
states where their ethnic kin folk resided or even if they didn’t they
wanted it. Okay? So you know what a [inaudible] is? What’s a [inaudible]? Pig. The world was
full of [inaudible]. That’s the plural of [inaudible]. The
world was full with piggish States All of whom wanted more. It was very,
very ugly. The powers were divided ideologically an internally. And this is very important. They’re divided ideologically that means within each country or rather I’ll take the internally first
they’re divided internally based on ideology each country had
domestic problems based on ideological arm radicalization polarization especially during the 1930s during the
depression nobody fully accept the Keynesian
economics as yet even though he was writing his major series in giving
advice all the way even into the nineteen
thirties in fact the head of the British Fashion Fascist
Party mostly and it was a very small party accepted
Keynesian economics and bolted and became a fascist because the government wouldn’t accept
Keynesian economics among a number of other reasons so there were those on the left
generally whose response to depression basically was we gotta do
something more like what our government just did somebody’s got
to get a bailout and the right-wing basically said now
you just gotta lay off people have balanced budgets you can’t mess with the economy you
gotta have balance budgets so they laid off people all over the
place state balance their budgets they raise protective tariffs and the
mail or worse so the depression got deep now in the case of France the depression
came to France Lee because it had a well-balanced economic structure we’re used to thinking of
France’s cripple but it wasn’t a cripple was
powerful powerful economically but it got worse
and worse and worse it was like a whole series of 26 during the whole nineteen-thirties it toward the country
apart and the people of France were close to a
civil war during the whole half over second half in the 1930s when they
were should’ve been in the process %uh
radically building up to face Germany they were about to tear each other apart
because have different ideological drives and understandings the old class
struggle are came to the fore again internationally the country’s were
divided ideologically as well now how did of France survive in world war 1 what what’s the first
thing you want to do you wanna talk about foreign policy or
wanna talk about the origins a war the fighting a war what’s the first
thing you gonna do in my body should tell you no I’m not leaving eat thank you all I up this over short is meant to hide it up look at a map look at a map okay how did Fran survived
World War one yeah here Lori giving up are word okay that’s part of it but that’s too
intelligent out I okay look at this guy overview the alarms I’ll group their lives of children but even more
importantly they align themselves rod democratic France the most democratic state your and Czarist Russia the most conservative
state in Europe and they have an alliance
against Germany because they’re terrified of
German how that’s cold real polling T but your sis 19 1891 1894 all the way through World War
one all always who or what that’s how they
survive in world war 1 by democratic prancing conservative
Russia and and taking off their hats in saluting each other’s flags and
listening to each other’s national anthems and all the rest to that stuff these
were people who were detested each other politically because this is the most conservative
regime in this is the most liberal regime but the necessity is the mother of
invention here to contain Germany it didn’t change
after world war 1 the map is still the same accepted
Poulin stopped in the middle the only way somehow contain Germany that really intends to go to war is to have an
alliance with Russia the problem is the ideology the nineteen twenties and thirties all
communism was so radical that the French and even more the
British feared Russia more than they fear
Germany even though russia was fairly
conservative in the nineteen thirties diplomatically and very defensive and
Germany is very aggressive an increasingly saw so look at the map how did you
survive World War one you should go back to doing that and
that’s where you’ve read The Gathering Storm the Churchill starts talking about
that by 1935 by 1936 he’s no lover Russia he despises
communism he wants England to survive he looks at
the map and the map should tell you at least you
got to have a serious agreement with Russia now the French actually had an agreement
they signed the Alliance with Russia in 1935 they ratified it in early 36 the British
were furious at them for doing it furious and then they didn’t implement so it was an alliance that wasn’t
implement they understood they needed it what this is basically is a 300-year step backward into the Warriors of reformation Europe in the sixties and early 17 century in which Catholic four protestant
promised them for Catholic a game each other no quarter what so
ever because they each had a utopian view of
what life and the future was all about and religion was the ideology up the age and self interest and rationality was so oppressed this is the return all the Reformation style ideology in which secular ideologies have now replaced religion as the
focused a people sport process she’s destroying
reasonable discourse and destroying the Cape capacity to make secular decisions based on geography and it was horrendous in some cases the documents will tell you when you
read them they even feared the Socialist government of France which was very very
moderate about the same as FDR in america with the same kinda program as FDR in
america mild changes the British preferred the Italian style
government or even the German style government to lay on bloom in 1936 when he was
leading a socialist popular front together with the communists and the
French democratic forces the French communist who are a pain in
the ass the socialists who were moderate and the
varieties of other democratic forces came together in France in 1935 to prevent fascism from taking control in France so things were so severe and
France ideologically and with the class
struggle that they feared what happen in Italy or
what happened in germany would you happen in France because there
were so many militarized fascists style leagues like many national socialists or Italian
fascist parties are in the nineteen twenties so this
ideological stuff is very very powerful the powers are divided constitutionally you’ve got lotsa dictatorships and arm you’ve got are a few democracies who does better in these
times of crisis dictatorships are democracies in solving
problems okay you know by 1929 mussolini had
relief or control in Italy took a long time he didn’t get it so quickly and he
didn’t have to worry much after then especially once he signs the
Concord up with the papacy okay which is the most important lasting saying the reconciliation between the
church and the state from the time of the breakup of that
from 1870 1866 actually or more 1871 word when when the the
Italian state captured wrong and took wrong to be part
of the Italian state and the pope was just left with the
vatican okay are Hitler had to do that too when
he reached the concord with the papacy also in 1933 one of the first things he
did is reach an agreement with the church
how is that possible the church also feared communism far more then it’s feared Italian
fascism or national socialism far far more so the dictatorships could get along
with arm dealing with loss up the internal
problems much more easily then the democracies
were opinions were divided and divided and divided they were fifteen different governments
in France between a 1928 1939 I don’t know the numbers
fifty maybe it’s thirty maybe taking I mean they the rose in the fall so
quickly sometimes when major historical changes
were occurring as with the Anschluss the annexation of
Austria in 1938 France technically was in the
middle of the ministerial crisis and technically did not have a new valid
government it had a government people were making
decisions but they were in transition between to different governments okay so about this problem of the arm dealing with all these
domestic issues was really very very extreme during this
time period all had severe domestic problems bought the dictatorships were able to
deal with those problems of much more readily then though
democracies are by doing all kinds of other things
in the case if hitler even know much at all about economics the old economists continue to serve him
loyally well he just started putting people back
to work started building roads in building bridges all over the
place very very openly very evidently arm he started rebuilding the army he just
put people back to work if the ballot the budget was gonna be
unbalanced he would take care but later so be it he didn’t think in the long
long run people needed to be employed he put them
back to work there were lots of people in fact most
people for whom he was a god and on Idol until the war began and even until 1943 he was adored he was by far the most
beloved person in Germany even on the apartment number people who
were liberals and Democrats because he put food back on the plates it’s not the people
were doing well or or great but they were doing so much
better than before they had so much security more security than they had before so
much more hopeful wishing they had before that’s so what are they gave up to civil
rights so what other neighbors disappeared it just didn’t up okay hitler became more and more popular
every single year in which he ruled until the Battle of
Stalingrad 1942 1943 because he was able to deal with those
domestic problems and lied to the people that he was a peacemaker law I to the people
that all he wanted was peace and peace and peace but peace with justice and dignity for
Germany the world are you don’t wanna know I 0 you are so I was personally alright I
gotta run for 10 my quotes thank you hope let’s not even worry
about the dahmer no I didn’t say that the Americans are
let’s think about the sophisticated British David Lloyd George the British war
leader in 19 I’ll 30 6 when their concentration camps not
murder centers but concentration camps all over Germany by that time all legal activity all civil rights everything has been usurped Lloyd
George goes to visit Hitler and he says the
following: whatever one may think his methods and
they are certainly not those a parliamentary country there can
be no doubt that he has achieved a marvelous
transformation in the spirit of the people in there at
it or attitude toward each other and in their
social and economic outlook but this is this is the greatest
English statesman in the last part of the 19th and early
20th century we thought mussolini was really cool
because he kept those communists and socialists in check okay roosevelt certainly understood and
didn’t like Hitler okay at all but how can you do this and then he adds the Germans will resist
to the dat every invader have their own country
but they have no longer the desire themselves to invade any other country 1936 now will come back to the quote because by that time and that’s a
wonderful question by that time hitler had already broken
three different parts of the purse I treaty and the look or new treaty which Germany
entered into freely in 1924 okay so by that time to make that kind
of statement is very very bizarre well Hitler laid it
on for David Lloyd George meets some of us want to thank him is it
just a plane mono dimensional madman there was the finest tea the cookies
were better than at Lafayette College people serving everything we’re they
laid it all on for those visitors are autographed picture of Hitler directly there for David Lloyd George
could you take pictures of him but of course and the thing same thing
when Chamberlain goes to visit were later Hitler runs down the steps to reach a
member on any shares home so sorry I should have come to is
it it England to visit you because you’re older than I am I’m so I
mean this guy really knew how to play the game okay so he he is sick he is a borderline
personality okay he is demonic but he is not out of
touch with reality he plays the game jeannie’s politically
and in terms with dealing with people until he loses that capacity because he
decides later fortunately he decides later to give up
all of those things and just to be himself an Alan blocking his wonderful biography
Hitler talks about the man without his clothes
he undresses during the war and he says the world will hold its
breath I’m tired of playing games with you people you’re gonna see everything I got on the
table are putting all my cards out and you can go shot and that’s when he defeats himself
overextending as long as he’s playing the game he
still controlling the deck and and that’s one other major points
here yes home did moves well yeah yes I he became physically and mentally more disabled after the July 1944 plot and at by that time when Germany’s
losing the war he is being put to bed in the wake and increasingly on drugs so he does become a he does become very very very drug dependent at the
very end he does lose touch with reality at the
very end he does maneuver divisions which have
already surrendered have been destroyed at the end and what you want to do is a
tiny little book by you Trevor Roper called the last days if
hitler and it’s an exquisite little book I and it tells you how Hitler lived
basically day by day by day and the film I’ll is a very very good
film The that that film on the last year the last
months or so hitler is historically pretty valid are so the
earlier there are a lot of cinematic materials on on this also up other questions are I’m still wanna
stay as much as I can in the a in the guidelines were ongoing our book but other questions to take a
little break is good if you have any anything up mentioned so far what was the role state okay a wonderful
good okay what was the role than eyes and
undergraduate as an undergraduate I did a paper a on the Rhineland that was gonna be my
PhD thesis I think it’s the single most important
turning point in the nineteen thirties March 1936 will go over again Hitler
email it arises the Rhineland breaks the Treaty of Versailles breaks the three Diablos look or no and
for a moment there’s a question of will the French goin’ and stop this and their army is more
powerful than the German army at that time even alone okay and a numbered Hitler’s generals at that
time were still thinking about trying to get rid of them he’d already accomplished what they
wanted he he was really arming Germany had broken the tree never saw
everything was in other words maybe it’s time to take trouble take it back from
him we gave them the power to fix things up
we gave the power to break the communists we aim the power to break the
socials we gave the proud to break the
democrats’ we gave the power to break the unions he’s done all those things maybe it’s
kinda get rid of them so I read current history right current history Allan Nevins great professor at Columbia University who wrote an ass a in current history in
1936 and the last line if it was after all
the rhineland is only germany’s own back your so our view was its German territory let
them do what they want with it and don’t get us involved again in any
troubles in Europe and the a Senate and house were still
investigating war profiteering from World War one okay so we wanted we we wondered we wanted out roosevelt
is trying slowly by that time still to to reeducate the country arm and the predominant arm problem is the depression again dog depression and we did not want to be
involved with that we were much more concerned that early still with what japanese with the
japanese were doing in Asia I and with the manchurian crisis 1930 re and a year later it would get worse
because Japan with attack China in 1937 then we were really
concerned Asia so we were still very very much in
isolation that okay including our scholarly yep building are well not not as yet it was
there because China and and what would happen later
because the japanese navy which was growing and growing yes okay point yet the the German the
german generals there yes it was iPhone the little hard to believe that a.m. the I was able to who a molecular yeah welcome Louis the issue where there when who writes about part and the clear warriors amor power the crazy
essentially yes that was being namely yes yeah I the past %uh ego he got that we’re
okay so up I’m gonna I’ll talk not right I’ll talk about this because
it’s okay you’re interested in it now I would have done a little bit later but
it two things okay first of all general though the
back chief-of-staff 1933 I have wished for
years for the political revolution and now my wishes have come true it is
the first real hope since 1918 alright so this guy ends up committing
suicide at the end of world war two because the plot to kill Hitler but 1933 that’s what he say single most important
thing that Hitler dawes June 1934 it’s on your sheet with the word knives next to it that’s the night of the Long Knives okay that’s when stalin began to take it more
seriously as a threat hitler has several generals and the leading radicals all the s a his own storm troops murder that night and takes credit for politically openly and he says someone had to be
responsible to set the house in order so what’s the point the generals were
afraid that the essay wanted to take over the army which it did and Huntsman wrong wanted to take over
the army and so hitler clean house the clean
house a bit own our lieutenants friends up his supporters have his the last
decade because they threaten the Army in the
army really then became more and more loyal to him 1935 Field
Marshal burner von Blomberg he got fired three
years later okay 1935 Blomberg said the fuhrer is cleverer than we are he
will plan and do everything correctly okay now why the cause he’s already
rearming he’s gotten away with it he got so away with it every single
thing he does that works raises his stock because he gets away with and all these
people come to really really respect him more yes in
the General Staff Hosley militarization who right leg yes and he said go and they followed me wet
and the french did nothing he had the guts he had dinner we were we who live %uh it was part of Germany but there was
it was a demilitarized okay in the same way as if there would
ever be a Palestinian state in the West Bank and hopefully there will be okay it has
to be divulged rise in certain ways no heavy heavy stuff no air force and stuff like that and guess what if
there ever is a state twenty years later it will have an air
force also because those things don’t hold okay but the point is that was party to
the treaty oversight was supposed to be permanently demilitarized cause that would break
French security and a year after the demilitarization is broken facing the
French match in allying the German security forces called the
secret yes him another reason one mom I’m right not just are this boss-like where you are well that so nicely yes and back pose like that well bro being a great hero bring loan mine a yet is that leftover a that done song on riche people and from you had pain is awesome sure with you know I is this house resolve this house with my own working a 0 I agree with you and that’s why
start out and say that the war is the first thing you have to remember
but we get into the time line I’m going to add some other things about the
French which will make it even worse okay we’ll
make it even worse yes all these who K yes all was me was didn’t know for his so much on the island law and everything know this way was new did he did is that K almost he came to
believe he was creature fate and fate would save him you can call that God he wouldn’t his
job to make other people already over this the state himself is my all yet all
yes oh yes in 1937 when he tells the german
generals that there’s going to be a war with the next five years or so he tells them directly this is the hot
spot meeting in 1937 November and he says we must prepare for war in
five years and here are the number of reasons why
we must do it among the most important which is that I’m getting older and we
can do as well with a order documents other its e-book oh yeah 500 never yeah ha spec memorandum your mmm
I’ll part yes at the meeting with the
generals me says you dr. solemn no was in public at that point is
pop public later after the war but he said he said you guys are doing your jobs right iight
said I want re militarization I want economic coordination I want us
to be ready for war and you guys are doing it and I’ll tell
you why you have to do it because within five years or so we’re
gonna have a war and part of the reason is ongoing
because we can have this war without me who’s right whose little 40 not yeah not know but he appeal he
had concerns about another one of these basic structures is that the world was a mess it’s not
just that Europe was aware amass it’s that the world was a mess are the decolonization movement the Empire Britain and France had world empires which were beginning to become major
problems that was especially true for Great Britain and the most important thing to them was
the Empire and they wanted to maintain the empire
in the empire was beginning the crack so they had worldwide issues to deal
with how could their Navy be strong enough to
defeat the growing German Navy which the Germans began to
really really build 1935 are at the same time be able to cope
with the Japanese Navy which was getting larger
and larger so that really really concerned them empire was a double-edge sword empire
had really really helped the British and the French in world war
1 the total resources at the empire or much of those resources were used by
Britain and France to help survive in World War 1 but now the
Empire’s themselves were beginning to become very very difficult issues where else does this
take place well again we call world when the world war one
start when it will work to start 39 anyone want to dispute it well if your Chinese you’d probably say hell
with you guys I i speak for $300 million chinese
living in nineteen if the 37 and Japan attacked us in 1937 so which is the old China or the West
okay so we think in terms of Europe okay to
the world war begin in 30 and 39 it be in in 37 it begin in 31 the world part of the war well the most important data still 13 but 37
looks awfully bad also and that’s when american policy really begins to change and we begin the press on the Japanese
so the world is a mess in asia but what about the Italian attack on
Ethiopia in 1935 okay now prior to this time Italy and France and Britain or working against Germany when Germany
begins to re militarized in 1934 I Italy decides to attack ethiopia why
ethiopia whistle lady stay lost Ethiopian the
eight in the in 1896 right okay they could win okay they could win well you know and and everyone everyone
makes jokes about the Italian Army I i don’t wanna use I wanna line up
against the time football players and the on our team okay these are big guys a dole accused them
over up running backwards a run for its okay Emperor Menelik upto PA and the
eighty-nine ease was was was making fun of all the european
powers at that time they were just as well on this the Italian Army at that time but Italy
wanted to revenge itself up that defeat and also
just take more okay the British and the French have
this empire or who ordained that the British the French are the only ones who
have a right to you jump higher we are a tie-ins we are the heirs Roman
civilization we have the rights to an equal Empire DAW check it out first to make sure the
british and the french will agree with you you’re worrying about Hitler the more
Hitler gained things the more mussolini’s appetite got
whetted by going to war against Ethiopia in 1935 what he does is make it impossible for
the British in the French wheels him they cannot because of their
public opinion tell her people that this is okay using
poison poisonous gas against natives using all the world war one min and better weaponry and airplanes
against relatively on militarized people and and show now Italy is los show the overall structure itself is so discombobulated that arm the whole environment is polluted well what about the league of nations
well Japan walked out 1932 the league then Japan for what it did
Japan said thank you goodbye what’s one of the first things Hitler
does in 1933 are the British in French won’t disarm
especially the french won’t disarm now and bring down their
arms to the size of the Armani nice talking to you it walks out
at the disarmament conference and just to make things good
he walks at the league of nations also goodbye was the League of Nations we’re
not in it japan is out a bit Italy’s been
condemned diet Germany is out a bit arm and we’re still basically in Sammy isolation so add on to that then we have arm Adolf Hitler the man and his policies race and speaks the man and his policy the hardest thing to understand is that
he was a true believer I want to buy my lips as I speak in his own mind he was utopian visionary he was going to build a better world Karl Marx said that all history is the
history of class struggles Adolf Hitler would have said all history
is the history %uh racial struggles and the only thing
that matters israelis and the germans are the superior race and destiny has
given them the right the opportunity and even more than that the necessity to trial and if they can’t try now then let them be lost as well and the worst part about this is that
although this racist stuff was very much apart lovely nineteenth
century and early 20th century thinking Adolf Hitler did not invent any these ideas what he had instead was the demonic believe and the demonic we’ll to implement them they were hundreds and thousands of
people who held these kinda believes on one level or another after world war
1 in your in Japan in america the difference being that having been part over defeated Germany the vengeful miss and need for making good again breaking oversaw I eighty every me a place for him possible even then most germans harder this in the 1940s first leave whose three parties matalin’s our yeah arm socialist or 1928 last election before the crash 3 Martin’s aperture shows yeah run for 1929 to 1932 1933 each she election or people palms more people National Socialist papers for you become
single or story basically all eats who have lost their willpower allow him
to come into our in the same way is each d with caissons me 11 years early shouldn’t they have known
better eleven years later Muslims power warehouse here just fine there were no unions they’re
socialized trains running on time so you he was ring and a not all that’s losses for me
then we’re concerned okay so what they did who they were held values that was that in grown man the museum even clean house they would
get freedom him really harm their basie injures journey probably should have had some kind of
military real democracy was no longer house democracy danger 31 issue was
whether or not he was going to be a National Socialist
danger or some kind of all older military are carrying the all all school but they didn’t really have any my views
and he had more control masses no smashes did not suspect where he was really
going to pay a they didn’t vote for him because he
was 87 do you know the against any cost that’s that wasn’t issue the beach issue laws jury duty who security whole recovery a job I okay there too many Jews your the soviet will
get them out that was so I issue at that time on you could say
shouldn’t they have known better without loman sold us was this whole us its firms its X once its its people’s hoops us he’s aids take Davis shop how he’s able to get away one questions yep sup you do pick up Street yeah Walt 128 used in water with the hair
anti-semitism Germany like feelings against
african-americans sanctions are I’m was higher than ever
before an inning when also he’s just everyday Street know it even are he’s when he he was a good student
until his until his hormones began the work as a
teenager he came from a reasonable family with a father who probably beat him up a good at it a very repressive father are he did very well in school he sang
in the church choir he sang he was a chorister he was the best student in his class for
a while in elementary school he went wacko during his high school
years arm any was an artist an arched artistic
temperament bohemian okay a fit well you know we call a
failed artist if you see his art in bed draw is there anyone here I mean are he would
have been as good as any art student Lafayette College easily at
any time but he wasn’t good enough to get into
the finest school in Austria he considered failure he had lots of
other opportunities including the pension fund from his
father was a bureaucrat be holes the woman called ok I’m yes and the British audience would not have accepted his
kinda speaking at the German audience would have had trouble with because the
cop it it’s kinda speaking for particular
culture the United wrong well following so in here there he had used in this University yes is friend was jus his friend loans Nationals his follows absurd just your place at mean I’m as he used use fully or has happened %um with him use scapegoating what you can do with great well on useless so I’m he says it in Mein Kampf
it’s all there it’s all there okay it really is all
there in fact it’s all their earlier than mein kampf he says our he says that if the we’re taken fifteen thousand users so
and put them on the front line and and make sure they got gay as we would not lost world war one okay and
the the the craziness about all of that is
that his his first Iron Cross came from a Jewish officer who who decorated decorator and the juicer be on their numbers in world war
1 but it was not believe that they did so
by the other German people in fact that was even an inquiry commission service record up
Jews in Germany during the war and to take that further alter Raton now was Jewish and he was
the head of the whole German munitions industry are
reproduction he kept them in the war in the beginning
of the war by being that particular person who put together all the
munitions made function he was later assassinated
in 1923 here it was all it’s all there it’s all
there isn’t people to greater right right it was all there it was
common to the culture or not the murderous form
but then the negativity was common to the culture in a murderous
form with respect to some people but he was the most radical love those
people or among the very very most radical and it didn’t matter to him at first
whether the views were sent to Madagascar whether they were killed it also didn’t matter to him whether
tenor $50 million poles were killed because they didn’t have any values
people made a mistake though cause there 150 million poles are only $30 million
but there were some polls living elsewhere so maybe the third in know that was the there was adultery in the back in the
family family tree had been adjusted are earlier dan dan a German scholar pretty much set that to rest about
twenty years ago but there there was the belief the rumor that
there may have been some Jewish blood in this family yes well him day only just based on the word religion or when Hill yes well that’s a huge question that’s a
question that pace million it has to do with the homie your coach really I earth-based religions all were nation then you add economic issues US
psychological issues you whose it was a station European
Hoelscher hatred and fear lives flowers Jews were together NC because a different they’re not us but
not only their different Akhil God and there for the okay they kill got the
poison the well as they eat your children to make martyr I meet okay look at work when I went
cross country I was asked by a naval fellow where my horns were this is 1964
when we got married and we were friends we we went out
together late at night they talk about religion
we said we were jewish where your horns eyesight I take them out when I by calling all
okay this is a serious okay so although and and the and the further east you
went to worship God so the anti-semitism in are ukraine in in Russia in poland was much more visceral and
much worse than the anti-semitism in germany okay what you have is about 500,000
German Jews out of 65 million in Germany in poland you’ve got three
mil 33.3 million Jews 30 three million people living in poland
so there’s ten percent of the population and all held was already breaking loose
in the nineteen thirties against them what’s marshall Slutsky defend the jews died
nineteen-thirties PC he this role up the kind yet when would you know even educated people
that’s the whole this is the worst part okay hitler one in the University she
didn’t lose he won among the students he won among the
faculty he answered their grievances he gave
them a sense of hope and Jews became to middle-class too quickly and took too many important
positions in society because they all steel okay too many
journalists too many doctors too many lawyers too many people doing well they suffered
through the inflation they suffer through the depression
didn’t matter okay was time to clean house and get rid of
all these foreigners all these aliens so that fewer germans
can work or pure polls Ripper Latvians are
lithuanians and they basically all did virtually the
same thing once the german armies can now that’s next year who does it learns document yes others was jewish yes he was protected any any more or those I am the Nazi said everyone has
their own favorite you so we can allow that but Hitler allowed wants that we know of their and
other times he allowed also only he could I’ll yell but this particular person actually had
it worse paintings he was not an artist he really was not
about arts was common but was not not bad at all okay touch you want to keep going with
questions are the one who it yet your day here game your game
called keep I N Go I’m line alright arm so we’re gonna jump up ugh like shout on that internal
coordination comes into power in 1933 regulates coordinate everything by the
end of the first year there are no more other political parties that are allowed
even the old conservative parties going to abeyance and he’s got dictatorial powers by the
in the 1933 in 1934 he kills these should a opponents have the army that gives
them even more support and in 1935 he announces publicly that Germany is remembered to rising breaks
the basic structure I love the Treaty of Versailles Germany
is going to remember to rise I’m gone back thank you now arm the goal wrote a book in 1934 their lappam a dim ATA toward the professional army it
was a brilliant book he was not the only one who was thinking
about these things he thought the mansion o-line which was already being fully
constructed was an inadequate defense system because no army should only have a defense system tanks are not supposed
to stand still they’re supposed to go forward if
Germany does something wrong how are we gonna stop them from doing it
by sitting in our bunkers poll Renault was a conservative French politician who believed in the goals
book the goal had dedicated his book to marshal petain hair the great marcia
love World War one to go all believed and movable tanks separate units shock troops small areas small divisions that can respond to small problems and
give you flexibility someone had asked for
lessons you always have to have flexibility you
can’t put all your eggs in one basket you must have flexibility so we’re not
all takes this to the French parliament for discussion the goal has insulted the entire army upper a lead Minister forget shop and says in Parliament with a straight face when we have spent so many billions on
our fortifications here comes one of my favorite quotes and
all history who would believe us foolish enough to
Sally out in front of them in search of heaven knows what adventure this is a general speaking who would
believe mission of to Sally L in front %uh them and search have been knows while venture the impact the French army so overwhelmed with the losses and the impact of World
War one that they never wanted to fight fence
war wanted the german armies if they came to
bleed to death on their fortifications while the French defended should do fall on her double off first defend yourself World War one a talk at all costs first attack how about doing both that’s all
the goal setting how bout being able to do both so the germans read the book a and and and even more them red lid
elkhart and general fuller’s book that were written in English at all said
the same thing and they implemented it and the French
could have had it 1935 and did not have Nana okay so now hitler has begun to build this army announced the existence up his Air Force and next it’s going to be the Rhineland
he’s going to remember to rise the Rhineland in March 1936 now by March 1936 if they had adapted the goals proposal they had the taxes just how to
use them differently not at the French Court building stop they could have had a way of responding
to the email to recession the Rhineland without total mobilization hitler in militarize is the Rhineland
the British aid in the French pope do anything appeasement what was appeasement the belief that
hitler could be appeased is there anything wrong with appeasement no if the person can be pieced but it wouldn’t be a beast how do you
know some British believe them passive
appeasement some British believe an active appeasement Chamberlain believe an active
appeasement put all the food in the plate and say which piece do you want to
eat everything anything to give me of course and Maalox still I’ll so what happens is the British aid to the French don’t
do anything we have all the meetings with the French cabinet the politicians say to the
generals what plans do you have ready stop him in
the Rhineland the general Shane on complete
mobilization in the middle of the depression who’s
gonna take the risk complete mobilization when you’re ally is telling you we’re not going with you
during this time period either we don’t want you to do anything
complete mobilization one of my favorite quotes the French do nothing it becomes the
most popular man by far in Germany the
generals come to believe he’s got the brains he’s got straight strong legs there’s a
shaky and that this is what he can bring home
for no cost and he’s the man so what is Renee Albert carry a say
about the Ryan plan which most scholars believe was the last chance a possibly
getting rid of it without a major war he says France had effective power over
own that in the last resort she could have
used a long at that moment France was still mistress
of her choice that choice was abdication still her responsibility to defend
urself you broken every treaty that existed he had really
changed the balance a power French do not act and then what
is rene albrecht carry a say later in the
same chapter and the United States was wondering
whether or not we are part of this world well he was an older fellow and he
really came got and he had a just getting but we
also we’re glad that nothing happened at that time and the world did not slip into war at
that time 1 more comment take question your cam friend you know way yes you now he can on the French being that way the
is army was not fully ready at all his generals were terrified
it was a big risk hitler said it fell from heaven Amanda
Fe couldn’t believe the result that it got
away that easily but he just felt it was right way to go
and in fact it was no surprise French didn’t think it was gonna happen
in March they thought it was going to happen later in the year their ambassador was riding home saying
this is the next step we gotta be ready gotta we can allow it okay the people who should have been
governing France at that time the people who should have been leaving the French army at that time
were buried in were done in Flanders and elsewhere okay they were the soldiers who have died and
they were fighting the last war and they mark block this wonderful book
by Mark block are called strange the feat was written
while he was in the resistance in 1940 and he said that the ultimate reason why
we lost world war two was mental failure the germans purely outsmarted us they thought creatively they were the
loser they change their tactics we sat on our Hans was mental failure any gives a whole other series of
reasons but the most important from this great historians mind he was
tortured yes by the Gestapo was mental failure then it gets worse the Spanish Civil War
you love it who cares well 500,000 people who died another 300,000 people who became
refugees so what happens in Spain there’s a
popular Front government in Spain in 1936 just this other is in France composed the same group communists socialists democrats verses the extreme right wing and the right way they are more radical the army rebels civil war breaks L troops from Morocco
start writing in Spain Germany and Italy send weapons and try
out their weapons and Spain were nigger in 1937 is obliterated
picasso than does the painting the British and the French there’s an
embargo they’re not supposed to send weapons the
italians and the German sign the embargo publicly
flaunted the russians and weapons to the Popular
Front government the Germans in the Italians really try
out their tanks and planes and troops on the side of the right-wing and the French sit on their hands with
their own Popular Front government why because they’re afraid of sliding
into war with Hitler more they’re afraid that civil war will break now in France if the french government age the left against the right that in France the right will go into rebellion
carrying much of the army and France will have a civil war this is 1936 that’s how divided society and Spain becomes a proxy war between the axis and the rest especially
the russians and Italy and Hitler get drawn into each
other’s bosom and then they meet with japan and do the
same thing sign an anti comment earn back to 1937 and the whole thing is getting tighter
but now everybody can look in the newspaper and
see what’s it look like when they bombed okay they can see what cities look like
when they’re bomb the name no London will be bomb that there is a war
they know Paris will be on there’s a war and things get me worse 1937 we already talked a little
bit about mister Chamberlain mister Chamberlain are is a believer in active appeasement given the
plate and tell them what to take now I’m exaggerating mister Chamberlain
however believes that he is powerful enough to
deal with Hitler that have hitler’s grievances are taken
care of hitler has to be a man of peace after
all he was a soldier in World War one it
keeps on saying he’s a man of peace all the cares about his German dignity he is a man of peace and Chamberlain put
it all on the table and let’s hit were now that the British would not be so upset
if hitler did the following things as long as he does it peacefully and not by using weapons so hitler now knows she’s gonna ally in
England who won’t support the French and by the way during the Popular Front
government the British said in their own documents in some cases
they prefer the government Italy and Germany to lay on bloom socialist in
France again that reformation ideology hatred
and fear even moderate socialism verses extreme fascism why because the people a property if they
weren’t jewish in there were communist they work radical the kept her mouth shut all
people property you’re living better in Germany under Hitler business is doing Jost fine K so they could live with that they were
willing to live with these people March 1938 Hitler annexes Austria well after all they’re only germans $8.9 million
additional people make good soldiers they were excellent
as s s people they volunteered Cosi they
missed the first six years they have a catch up volunteer Hitler goes in the BN it tears
and strolling down his face and he says yes a good political action say people’s
lives 76,000 people arrested next couple weeks and put camps look at the map what we have here three and a half million germans in the
sioux Dayton land in a pincer March are some time for 1930 8 are Hitler makes it clear that this
situation has to be dealt with immediately Chamberlain the summer 38
says the mere use the mere threat of the use of the force is a danger to the peace of europe they
all have a alliances to czechoslovakia france has
an alliance the russians have an alliance
czechoslovakia are is the only democratic state left in
the center of europe it has a modern military it has border
fortifications they let it go Munich September 1938 czechoslovakia is given or rather the shoe Dayton land is
given this is the last the freebies I want to
leave a little bit I’m for questions but this is the last the freebies march
of nineteen thirty-nine what the shit where do he marches into the rest czechoslovakia so what what’s the problem the problem
is there aren’t any more germans there before this he was saying all I want is
all of these far and germans brought back to the
bosom of the right but these inslaw’s and now it becomes
clear as a flash what Hitler intends to do domini all okay all the assumptions appeasement go down the two looking at all of this well you’re sitting in Russia and first
you see this this then you see this then you see this then you she demands for this and you
been omitted from all discussions what do you think stalin 4 the West was
trying to get him to attack the Soviet Union well hit was not too small for big
things all those horrible things he was saying
about Jewish Bolshevism stalin fires his Jewish foreign minister
lit for an RV replaces them with molotov Germany and Russia start negotiating August 1939 Nazi soviet pack signal war this time with Germany and
Russia together against Poland and the West hanging now having lost all
of this an issue six-and-a-half years from the depths the depression to dominance in Europe the only ones paying the price the
Liberals the democrats the communists socialist the Jews in Germany no military force used always have to consider your worst case scenarios this was not a easy world to play this was a perfect storm the French have a distinguished military
history of fighting and defending themselves in
conquering everybody else after all they dominated Europe from
sixteen 50 through napoleon okay where did you ever get a selection
of french generals like these people never in all the french history British and Island conquering half the world we did you ever get british political
leaders and diplomats as blind as they were during this time and able all on me and want them us all that he and the war a people what I V realized implored and told me own sure it claimed it hard right the good had yep could have had Italy as an ally of their
play their cards right or Italy have played its cards right because Austria is a offer between Germany and Italy italians don’t
want to be border teacher yes work in Spain who were intelligence a up job for free hitler said old hitless
said he would rather go to a series a dentist’s than ever meet frankel again private so hard to get Franco to enter
the war Franco owed Hitler so much but he just
kept saying all right you give me this amount of tanks this amount of oil this amount of this in this amount that
miss a manner that and then we’ll think about it I writer backup was a while this yes yes yeah do how much you hand-holding Allies in
World War One Bowl you well embolden them a lot because
they saw how powerful they were with respect to the others but this is a series of a whole series
of things that defeating China in 1894 defeating Russian 1905 the if they went
through a whole series of steps in which they became a great power and the West didn’t really understand
them fathom it until later partly because racial and journey silly yeah include war his oh yes oh yes oh yes it brought us in a good
couple months earlier a good few months earlier might have taken a whole half a
year longer or who knows what hitler for hitler for
its that’s when he addresses what that hell I’m declaring war on
those people yes churchill’s for yes arm he’s going on primary
sources and is quotes workers or is local absolutely I Santander actually I as an undergraduate
when I studied the Rhineland crisis actually found places in which he wasn’t
telling the truth where he was saying that he had taken a
position six months to a year earlier than he had
taken the position when it ends up being the right position then I read the parliamentary
debates as to what he said a yes and I will come over here right yesterday your and you kind of lost guys what I was
thinking when you started you were saying the this with lifetime you liberals and
conservativism a is there any natin to today in our country and yes it is area group C yes and it’s scary yeah yes and I and II I plead and worry about our
country cause it’s not really a country’s an
empire okay I don’t want to give rise to a stay
together and done what we’ve done is is a marvel I
will never let the Euro be created well at that that was for the europeans
it wasn’t a bad thing it’s what you do with it now that that’s pretty good thing you know
it’s a good thing now all in here a good thing is going to breakfast in straw swarg and going to
lunch in the little German city right across
the bridge without having to show a passport that is a good think so if you want to
feel a little bit better after these two
commentaries that I’ve given this discussion we’ve had wanna feel a little bit better okay
Europe has com very very far since world war two well there are some
possible about the economic situation sure more well with all a bit they’re
living better than they’ve ever lived before the real issue is can we continue to do
so on that so %ah

68 thoughts on “Prof. Robert Weiner: The Origins of World War II

  1. How is that a war with Germany and USSR against Poland if the soviets brought their forces into Poland only AFTER the polish government fled the country. Why the soviets stopped at the Curzon Line, recovering only their territories lost in soviet-polish war in 1920's and not invading national parts of Poland at all? If there was secret protocol dividing Poland – how come German generals wrote in their diaries they didn't know anything about it and soviet advance took them by surprise?

  2. 1. Yes, these were occupied soviet territories.
    2. It does, technically speaking the country did not exist, so from the point of view of law its not an aggression.
    3. High-ranking generals HAVE to know about this protocol – otherwise there is a huge chance of misunderstanding each others' intentions and accidentally starting a war to which neither USSR nor the Reich was ready.
    4. Did he not? As far as I know his assassination attempts happened a lot later.

  3. Thhe Hossbach Memorandum has been widely condemned (Mason, Kershaw, Taylor)…when it appeared at Nurnberg , the American lawyers had already edited it and the majority of those who attended this meeting, were dismissed shortly after…this Weiner has no idea….

  4. A very good teacher, but is wrong about europe today.

    Germany used the EU and the Euro to destroy the ecomies of the other nations and strip them of their assets.

    First Italy and then other nations will rise an break apart from their captor, disolving the EU and finaly europeans will do what they did for centuries, cut each others throat.

    Watch that in Europe today the far right and NAZI like hate ideologies are gaining momentum, with the overwhelming illegal imigration fuelling their power.

  5. German (nazi) apologetic litterature would've had a much better case if it weren't for the occupation Czechoslovakia in 1938.

  6. I agree Prof. Weiner. Rites of Spring is top notch. I had to read for a WWI history class. I also enjoyed the

  7. Weiner is showing his slant. Germany was angry with the Jews because they felt betrayed by their treachery concerning the Balfour Document. Jews were actually a respected part of German society before WWI.

  8. No. Only the ones at the top.I would like to listen to a 2 hour presentation on the Economic back room deals the early part of last century(maybe start around 1880's). There is also a layering of the Jews and the lower ones were culled with complicity. This was all by design. Just as today the residents of Israel are just pawns in the larger game.

  9. I did not "try to justify" anything at all, what I did do was try to explain the _real_ reasons for antisemitism without the usual caricaturing that follows any such attempt. I don't like Nazis but I don't particularly like Jewish zealots either. Both groups are hostile to parliamentary democracy, civil society and the values inherited from the European Enlightenment which are (or at least should be) the foundation for any modern society…

  10. He is correct about the book The Rites of Spring. One of my favorite reads about the First World War. Excellent!

  11. the whole world is anti jew,they just try to hide it behind excuses.we need to nuke isreal,and let the good people of iran alone

  12. Yeah cause Iran is just going to sit in their little corner and not bother anyone . 40 years ago I would have said ok lets give it a shot but now ? I say let them go at it and we knock over the last one standing . I know it sounds cruel and it is a huge risk to take but a huge sacrifice will have to be made for actual world peace and with the history they have they will have to almost obliterate each other to have a real conversation . Our world needs supervillains!!!

  13. Yeah but not all Jews were or are like that . Germany was looking for a group to blame their troubles on plain and simple . And the people that were guilty of the things you are suggesting more than likely got their asses out of the country before it all went to shit. So you can't really sell me on that one dude . I get what you are saying about there being Jewish zealots but lets call a duck a duck here.

  14. Okay Germany's troubles came form picking a fight with the world and losing and was compounded by the world markets crashing . Was there greedy people that just so happen to be Jews ? Yeah but I am willing to bet there were greedy non Jew Germans also that contributed to their troubles o and they picked a fight with the world and lost .

  15. I simply wanted to make a distinction between the "antisemitism" of pre-Nazi Germany and the "antisemitism" of Nazi Germany. While they did tap into older more conventional grievances involving the Jews, the Nazis were mainly concerned with what they saw as racial pollution of the German[ic] race. These were essentially two different rationales for opposing Jewish presence in German society, although there was a lot of overlap…

  16. world history is as important as U.S. history.

    so that Americans will know more about the world…and not just America alone.

    a good chance to study about Europe..

  17. The brutality of the Germans was second to none during the war. Their crimes against the Soviet peasants, Jews, Polish and Czech were unmatched in human history.

     To say that it was the work of just a few SS men is disingenuous. 
    They perpetrated 5 wars since 1850 and their "racist" leanings was merely catalyzed by Hitler. 

    One theory on why the Germans with their warring mindset suddenly went quiet after WWII postulates that nearly all of the men with a violent genome were obliterated during the war. 

    Overall, Germany paid a much lesser price for the Armageddon they created.

    It is unthinkable to imagine what the plight of the occupied peoples might
    have been had Hitler won the war.

     Several thousand German POW's did starve after surrender. There were no buildings left to house them, they had been destroyed during the war. The USA was sending food to England, Russia, France, Belgium, Holland, China and other far east countries. Americans at home were rationed on food items. America simply did not have the food to feed them, our own military came first. A sad fact but they brought it on themselves.

    There was not any food aid sent from European countries? that is an outright lie.

    They didn't have it to send.

    Germany had already stripped their countries of everything including food and sent it back to Germany. France and Belgium wouldn't have pissed in any Germans ear if their brains were on fire. Both countries had bee occupied and brutalized by Nazi Germany and had serious food shortages for at least 2 years after the wars end.

    The Russians did starve German troops that surrendered to them. They treated the Germans exactly the same way they treated Russian POW's Germany starved 2 1/2 million Russian POW's to death out of the 3 million they captured.

    The Nazis deserved no sympathy. They tortured and murdered 30 million civilians in the countries they occupied in Europe. They voted Hitler and his gang into power and he led them to the very worst ass kicking a country could get and Germany deserved it.

  18. Great job. I love how he communicates. Some professors talk like BOOKS. He talks about the subject to the ordinary guy.

  19. Hopefully he eventually learned that whispering to make a powerful point is a Very Bad Idea when being videoed.

  20. Are a lot of college lectures like this? I doubt that a lot professors have such an outgoing attitude like this one. I'm a soon to be senior in high school please forgive me for my ignorance!

  21. Reminds me of the best teacher I ever had . .  .also in history.  Engaging, demonstrative, a wonderful story teller bringing the dynamics of personality to explain history.  I can't stop watching him.  Simply spell binding.  Just makes me remember why I was so very fascinated by history.

  22. Franco was smarter than any of them were.  I lived in Spain under Franco and it was wonderful.  Crime was simply not allowed, the people were wonderful and happy, the country itself was beautiful and charming.  What might the country have looked like under communism?

  23. I stopped watching after hearing that Hungary had some territorial claims against Poland in the period between 1918-1939. Then the blanket statement about much worse anti-semitic behavior in Poland compared to Hitler's Germany was a last straw. I guess I shouldn't be surprised given general lack of understanding of Central European relations and history among Western societies. But then if unsure or ignorant of specific area one is at least one shouldn't spread misinformation. Nice that at least he mentions one good book in the process.

  24. some people should learn to shut up. nobody wants to hear you guys. let the prof speak and don't interrupt him with your old people stories. 

  25. The professor seems to lean to the left but I guess not so much that he falls over. The communism of Stalin and Mao Zedong competes well in terms of suffering with what Hitler brought about.

  26. What the hell do the questions have to do with the origins of World War 11?
    The lecture is rambling and disjointed.

  27. I would have liked him to spend some more time on the people who DID see Hitler for who he was, specifically Churchill from the mid-1930s, and Roosevelt right from the beginning. I would have liked him to have discussed Roosevelt more overall, in fact, ans the dichotomy between him and Hitler. He was Hitler's most dangerous enemy right from the beginning – one that could not be invaded or defeated, and the one with the most resources.

  28. I would have liked him to spend some more time on the people who DID see Hitler for who he was, specifically Churchill from the mid-1930s, and Roosevelt right from the beginning. I would have liked him to have discussed Roosevelt more overall, in fact, ans the dichotomy between him and Hitler. He was Hitler's most dangerous enemy right from the beginning – one that could not be invaded or defeated, and the one with the most resources.

  29. The Marxist Co-Option Of History And The Use Of The Scissors Strategy To Manipulate History Towards The Goal Of Marxist Liberation

    The refusal of the World War I Allied nations of Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, France, Canada and the United States to overthrow the Bolshevik regime immediately after the 7 November 1917 coup in Petrograd1 shun a bright spotlight on not only the Marxist co-option of the Allies’ political establishments,2 but Marxist co-option of the Central Powers’ political establishments as well, since after the war those nations that constituted the Central Powers during the war failed after the war to alert the attention of the world to the Allies’ Marxist co-option, where the Allies protected the Bolshevik regime in Petrograd, even though Lenin's war policy would remove Russia from the war, thereby strengthening the Central Powers against the Allies.

    World War I was a Marxist operation creating false oppositions for the purpose of causing chaos, where out of the ashes of chaos the Marxist global position would be stronger. The official term Marxists give to this false opposition tactic is the Scissors Strategy,3 in which the blades represent the two falsely opposed sides that converge on the confused victims, simultaneously neutralizing true opposition while advancing the Marxist agenda.

    As soon as the World War I operation had ended, Marxists began planing for the World War II operation with the creation of that war's two false opposition fronts, the National Socialist German Workers' Party and the National Fascist Party in Italy. Benito Mussolini was a well known and influential Marxist before the Comintern ordered that he take up a new identity as leader of the National Fascist Party. As for Adolf Hitler's Marxist pedigree, one-third of Hitler's SA, and later Gestapo personnel, were 'former' Marxists.

    During the course of World War II Admiral Wilhelm Canaris, Chief of the Abwehr (German military intelligence), and General Reinhard Gehlen, Chief of the German General Staff’s intelligence unit for the Soviet Union and East European countries,Foreign Armies East (FHO), independently discovered that a group supervised by Deputy Führer Martin Bormann,4 second in command of Germany, was transmitting unsupervised coded radio messages to Moscow…

    "Our suspicions were largely confirmed when, independently of one another, we found out that Bormann and his group were operating an unsupervised radio transmitter network and using it to send coded messages to Moscow. When OKW monitors reported this, Canaris demanded an investigation; but word came back that Hitler himself had emphatically forbidden any intervention: he had been informed in advance by Bormann of these Funkspiele, or fake radio messages, he said, and he had approved them."5

    The only way to ensure that fake radio messages were being sent to Moscow, and not the latest Wehrmacht movements in the Eastern theater of operations, is to have such radio messages supervised by intelligence officers vetted for counterintelligence operations. It's one thing for Hitler to approve fake radio messages, but there's no excuse to not have the fake radio messages supervised by experienced counterintelligence officers. To refuse to implement this critical standard operating supervisory procedure cries out treason, since even Bormann himself should have wanted to ensure none of his subordinates were transmitting sensitive information to Moscow. The fact that Hitler refused such elementary precautions informs us that Hitler & Company were Marxist agents, sabotaging the German war effort from Berlin. In fact, it was the winter of 1941-42 that Gehlen and fellow generals had assessed that the Soviet campaign was a hopeless enterprise "…not because it could not be militarily or politically won, but because of Hitler's continued interference, which resulted in such elementary blunders that defeat was inevitable."6

    Gehlen details Hitler’s sabotage of Germany's Soviet campaign:

    (1) The General Staff wanted to concentrate resources on capturing Moscow, since Moscow was the Command & Control location for Soviet forces. Hitler insisted on dissipating the effort on three fronts.

    (2) The General Staff saw that the Soviets were going to entrap the Sixth Army at Stalingrad, and demanded a strategic withdrawal. Hitler vetoed this and 200,000 of Germany's best troops were lost, including the loss of irreplaceable weaponry.

    (3) To replace these losses, the General Staff wanted to recruit millions of willing volunteers from anti-Communist ranks, i.e. Russians, Ukrainians, Lithuanians etc., “After twenty years of arbitrary injustice and terror, the reestablishment of elementary human rights such as the dignity of man, liberty, justice, and the sanctity of property united every inhabitant of the Soviet empire (insofar as he was not directly working for the Moscow system) in a common readiness to support the Germans. What could be more natural for us than to exploit this readiness?"7 Hitler’s policy of treating Slavs as sub-human sabotaged any meaningful attempt in turning captured Soviet soldiers into German allies.

    Both world wars severely weakened the security of the West by the deaths of non-Marxist military officers, who were replaced with Marxist officers. The Korean War continued this supplanting of Marxist officers for non-Marxist officers, and in the case of the United States was further exasperated by the Vietnam War, where over 50% of North Vietnamese soldiers (NVA) were Chinese PLA soldiers attired in NVA uniforms. As the globe turned ever redder after the November 1917 Marxist coup in Russia, the Marxist co-opted West naturally never liberated one Communist nation, and in early 1992 refused to perform a verification of the collapse of the USSR, thought the survival of the West depends on such verification.


    Before Marxists could accomplish their mission to liberate the world using subterfuge and chaos, religion also had to be controlled:

    The Vatican was co-opted by Marxists at the top position in 1846 (with the election of Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti as Pope, taking the name Pope Pius IX), hence the embarrassing edicts on the (1) Immaculate Conception (1854); and (2) Papal Infallibility (1870), both edicts placing their respective subjects on an even level with God's omniscience. In fact, in 1858–four years after the Vatican made the Immaculate Conception church doctrine–Mary took time out of her busy schedule and came down to Earth informing Bernadette Soubirous that she, Mary, was indeed the Immaculate Conception.

    Then in 1917 the Marxist government in Portugal, in co-operation with the Vatican, gave us the next fake Marian apparition at Fatima where Mary tells the child Lúcia Santos that if prayers are offered up to her then there won't be an even more terrible war in the future…

    "The war is going to end: but if people do not cease offending God, a worse one will break out during the Pontificate of Pius XI."8

    Did you catch it? God isn't omniscient in this Marxist drama, because Mary says there might be another war. That's what happens when you leave it up to Marxists to write these scripts, they naturally get it all wrong due to their ignorance of theology, and in this instance getting wrong a particular aspect of God's essence, which includes (1) omnipotence; (2) omniscience; (3) omnipresence; and (4) being eternal.

    Mary continues, “To prevent this, I shall come to ask for the consecration of Russia to my Immaculate Heart, and the Communion of reparation on the First Saturdays. If my requests are heeded, Russia will be converted, and there will be peace; if not, she will spread her errors throughout the world, causing wars and persecutions of the Church. The good will be martyred; the Holy Father will have much to suffer; various nations will be annihilated. In the end, my Immaculate Heart will triumph. The Holy Father will consecrate Russia to me, and she shall be converted, and a period of peace will be granted to the world."9

    Note where Mary says, “In the end, my Immaculate Heart will triumph. The Holy Father will consecrate Russia to me, and she shall be converted…”

    In other words, Mary is telling us there’s no need to wage war against the USSSR because the Marxists who control the USSR will convert to Russian Orthodoxy. And what happened on December 26, 1991 in the Soviet Union? Mary was right, Bolshevism collapsed, and overnight Marxists became Orthodox Christians.10

    As for Protestant denominations they too fell under Marxist control, as illustrated by not one Protestant institution (in fact, not one Protestant bishop) alerting the world to the fraudulent collapses of the USSR and East Bloc nations.11 The same is true for Islam and Hinduism, including the Buddhist philosophy.

    See link for footnotes…

  30. excellent lecture professor.I apologize for my complaint,i find it hard sometimes to hear what you are saying.can you speak loudly?.

  31. Demonic Hitler? Churchill declares war on him, so Churchill should be demonic; Hitler was only trying to recuperate nexus with the island-like portion of Germany that existed on the Poland grabbed territory of WW1.
    I guess the professor has some drops of blood from… you know where.

  32. What this guy says about the antisemitism in Poland is FUCKING LIE!
    One must be insane to say that the antisemitism in Poland or Russia was higher than in Germany !
    Apparently he is using his position to create that impression !
    LIAR !!!

  33. I take issue with the statement that western Europe was materially better off and living at its highest ever standards. There was a world depression going on and SO many people lived in abject poverty that was virtually indistinguishable from (in Britain) the Victorian era.

  34. Let's face some industrial facts. Germany used just 30% of their munition production targeting land war. 58% went on air war and 12% for sea war. Finally just 30% of their munition production went to Eastern Front needs. Germany used in 1943 some 4 billion RM for concrete shelter construction, 80% of it because Allied bombing campaign. The value of it was about cost of 40 000 panzers, assault guns, self propelled guns. Eastern Front was not priority for German munition production.

  35. Reminds me of the saying ( can't remember who offhand)  " will value the gifts of a dictator over the empty promises of a republic.

  36. Not to sound like I'm defending this man's perspective, but I was wondering if anyone could source anything that contradicts what Professor Weiner says? I only ask because I'm and amateur historian focusing on WW2. That being said Weiner's interpretation follows the way my understanding of the causes of WW2, however if there are sources that contradict this I would like see this myself and decide if these contradictions have merit.

  37. Everyone sees conflict from one's own perspective….ultimately war itself is the only victor, everyone else loses

  38. Well, I have to quit listening at less than an hour in, and I will never get that time back. NOT history… this is a well-crafted monologue of willful denial of reality

  39. This guy have NO CLUE about actual History and FACTS!!! "FDR was moderate and made very modest 'Reforms.'" FDR was a RADICAL SOCIALIST and TOTALLY REWORKED the US Economy!

    "How do Dictators and Democracies work?" FDR was a DICTATOR! He disregarded the US Constitution and Supreme Court. He only followed the Laws that benefited his Plans and ignored any that ran counter to his Ideology. He stripped the USA people of their Rights to Thought, Speech, Property, Process, etc.

    Hitler on the other hand worked WITHIN the Democracy. USA had a 1-party system. (Demonrats) Germany had a PLETHORA of Parties and Hitler formed a Consensus and multi-lateral Gov't. Yes, he later followed the USA lead of outlawing his Rivals and had his FBI Chief Hoover (Himmler) keep files on Dissidents and "undesirables" just as J Edgar Hoover did.

    FDR nationalized the Economy and Manufacture Centers/Private Property, limited wages and what people could receive for their Work and Labor. (Communism) Hitler limited the Commodities that Industry received based upon quasi 5-yr Plans like the Soviets. He created ACTUAL National Projects like the Autobahn, unlike Obama's "Green Energy Investment" which was actually just money-laundering and corruption to funnel the People's Money into the Pockets of his Cronies.

  40. The "Rites of Spring" is an excellent text. Tying in the dehumanization of modern society with the mass murder of modern war.

  41. Skip to 6:50 minutes. An interesting story of the governments and people of Europe leading up to WW2, told with the ease and depth of someone who knows his subject . Minor video and audio issues 🙂

  42. What would have happened if Germany had not rearmed and Stalin had invaded Germany in the early 1940's and pitted his 20,000 tanks against the 100,000 man army of Germany?

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