The Hittite Empire and the Battle of Kadesh | Early Civilizations | World History | Khan Academy

– [Instructor] Now going
to talk about a people that began to settle
and eventually conquer much of Anatolia, modern-day Turkey at the beginning of the
second millennium BCE, and these people are
known as the Hittites, and the word Hittite is referred to in the Hebrew Bible, in the Old Testament, and it’s worth dissecting
that word a little bit because the word comes from the idea that this region that they conquer in modern-day Turkey was
referred to as Hatti, and Hatti had original inhabitants known as the Hattians,
but the Hittites conquer and displace these Hattians, but they are referred to as the Hittites because they settle in Hatti. Now they’re considered to
be Indo-European people. This is a word that you will hear often in World History, and that’s because what linguists have found is
that many modern languages seem to have a root in what’s called proto-Indo-European language, and I’ll do a whole video on it, but looking at linguistic structures, we believe or one model is is that many of the people who speak
these Indo-European languages or these ones that are derived from the proto-Indo-European,
and that includes languages related to Greek. We’re talking about Latin, we’re talking about
the Germanic languages, including what I’m speaking right now which is English, which is fundamentally a Germanic language with
a lot of Latin influence, we’re talking about Celtic,
but we’re also talking about more eastern languages like Persian, and Hindi, and Bengali. All of these have a lot
of commonalities to them which we believe gives
evidence that, at one point, it was a very closely
related group of people who are coming from this Caucasus region, and this map that you see here, this shows one model for
how those people spread and eventually broke
off into various tribes speaking different, but
very related, languages. So the fourth millennium BCE, they were in this region right over here which would be southern Russia, the Caucasus right around there, and then by 2500 BCE,
that’s this orange area, they had spread even further. And then by 1000 BCE, they
had spread even further and the Hittites would have
been one of those people because they settle in
Anatolia right over here. Now we don’t know as
much about the Hittites as we know about, say,
the ancient Egyptians or the Mesopotamians, but we know that they were a significant civilization. Now if you look at this timeline here, it shows the various civilizations that were emerging around this time. We’re now talking about the mid to late second millennium,
so this is 1700 BCE, let me write that down just to make sure, we know that’s BCE, 1600
BCE, so on and so forth, and I show these various civilizations that existed around that time, and they correspond to this map here. So you have Mycenaean Greece
which emerges around 1600 BCE all the way to about 1100 BCE. You have the New kingdom of Egypt, which is from about 1550 BCE to a little bit after 1100 BCE, and we do a whole series of videos on ancient Egypt, and then we talk about the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, and of course, the New Kingdom. And the New Kingdom of Egypt is important because they’re going to
be one of the key rivals for the Hittites in this period. The New Kingdom of Egypt
is often referred to as the Egyptian Empire because it was the most powerful time of ancient Egypt, and you see that right over
here in this brown color. Now in this purplish-blue color, that is the Hittite civilization, and this map right over here, you can see that they started to really settle and conquer that area at the beginning of the second millennium, and by 1600, you have
the Old Hittite kingdom, and then as we get to about 1400 BCE, you have the New Hittite Kingdom, often known as the Hittite Empire, and this is where they really
start to flex their muscle. And notice, they’re flexing their muscles at roughly the same time as the Egyptians, and so this map right over here, this is in roughly the 14th century, what this area looked like. So we’re talking roughly this zone, and you can see there are
several civilizations, many of them that were in their peak. You see the Mitanni
Kingdom right over here. You see the Middle Assyrian Empire. We talk about them when
we talk about Mesopotamia, and you see Kassite
Babylonia right over here. The Kassites took over after the Amorites under Hammurabi and his dynasty, and we’ll see that they
also have a connection to the Hittites. So this will hopefully
acquaint you with time. These are Bronze Age civilizations. The state of the art
technology for most of them was bronze, which is
combining copper and tin, and you can make weapons, and tools, and jewelry with it. Now what’s interesting about the Hittites is that they were one of the first to start to use iron. Iron required a little
bit more technology. In order to smelt iron,
you have to get the furnace to be even hotter, and
the Hittites, we know, did make use of iron. Now they are also known
as great charioteers. This is an image of what a
Hittite chariot would look like, and so with a combination
of iron chariots, that’s one of the things that helped them establish something of an empire. Now I mentioned that
they come into conflict with many other peoples. In fact, they come into
conflict with most of the folks that you see on
this picture over here. The first time that you really see them in a significant way conquering things is in 1595 BCE, and this would be the Old Hittite Kingdom, but this is what famously ends Hammurabi’s dynasty, the Amorite dynasty in
Babylon right over here. They go to Babylon in 1595 BCE and they overthrow it. They’re not able to maintain rule, they have to go back. There start to be fragmentation
dissension at home, but it’s the end of the
Amorites, and then eventually, another group, the Kassites,
take over this region, and you can see them in
gray right over here. Now what’s also interesting
in this timeline that we have, and we’re talking about hundreds of years, it’s important to keep things in perspective, is that you see that a lot of these
civilizations in the Middle East and Mesopotamia, this
area’s often referred to as the Levant. It’s related to the word levante from Italian for “to rise,” because for the Romans, for the Europeans, for those in the West, this
was where the sun rose, this was the East, it was
the Eastern Mediterranean. And so you have all of these civilizations that are in the Levant
in the 14th century BCE, in the 13th century BCE, but
then they start to decline, and that general period after or around the 12th century BCE is known
as the Bronze Age Collapse when a lot of these civilizations become a lot more fragmented. Now I’ve already alluded to the fact, and I talk about this in a lot of detail in the Ancient Egypt video,
that the chief rivals of the Hittites were the Egyptians, and vice versa, and it’s
particularly the case in the 14th and 13th
centuries where both of them were quite powerful empires. You have the Egyptians
moving up into this area right over here, modern-day
Israel and Lebanon, and you have the Hittites moving down from the north, from Anatolia
into modern-day Syria. And there’s a whole series of conflicts that emerge in this area,
and one of the most famous and one of the most significant
happens in 1274 BCE, and that is the Battle of Kadesh. Kadesh is an area that has switched hands multiple times between the
Egyptians and the Hittites. At this time, you have Ramses II, considered the greatest Egyptian Pharaoh, he is the Pharaoh, he
is the ruler of Egypt, and he wants to recapture Kadesh. And what’s significant
about the Battle of Kadesh, it’s the earliest battle where we have a significant account of the tactics, of the strategy, of the
formation of the troops. We know that there were over
50,000 soldiers involved. It’s currently believed it might be the largest chariot battle
in all of world history that we at least know about,
and the actual outcome of the Battle of Kadesh
seems to be a stalemate. Our accounts of it come
primarily from the Egyptians. We don’t have any significant Hittite surviving accounts of
the Battle of Kadesh, but it gave us a lot of information. But beyond just the battle
itself being significant, because we have this detail about what battles were like at that time period with chariots and the type
of tactics that were used, what’s also significant is 16 years after the Battle of Kadesh, you have the Egyptian-Hittite
Peace Treaty in 1258 BCE. And the reason why this is significant is this is sometimes referred to as the first peace treaty in history. I would qualify a little bit as saying it’s the first peace
treaty that we know about in this part of the world,
and this right over here is the Hittite version of it, and what’s especially cool
about this peace treaty, and just so you know what
these other pictures are, this is a Hittite ramp discovered at the Hittite capital of Hattusa. This is some pictures of the Hittite gods of the underworld. But once again, we don’t have as complete of a picture of the Hittite versus, say, the Egyptians, but what’s also neat about this treaty, it’s sometimes called the Treaty of Kadesh, but it doesn’t refer directly to Kadesh. These folks have been in
conflict with each other for nearly over 100 years right over here, so this treaty is really to talk about not just Kadesh, and this treaty happened 16 years after the Battle of Kadesh, but to talk about, “Let’s
just have a permanent peace “between our two great empires,” and what’s cool about it is
we have surviving accounts from the Hittites that
were discovered in Hattusa, and we also have a symmetric account that we get from the Egyptians, and so this is the one from the Hittites and this is from the Egyptians. It’s written in Acadian,
which wasn’t their language. Acadian, we talked about,
was a Semitic language, and they used cuneiform
script, which remember, we get from the Sumerians,
but it’s cool to get the same treaty written
in different scripts from both sides of the conflict. And I’ll just read a little bit of it because it’s neat to just think about it, and of course they didn’t
write it in this language, modern English wouldn’t show up for many, actually thousands of
years from this point, but this is a translation. “Now from the beginning
of the limits of eternity, “as for the situation of
the Great ruler of Egypt “with the Great Prince
of Hatti, the god did not “permit hostility to occur between them, “through a regulation. “But in the time of Muwatallis,
the Great Prince of Hatti, “my brother,” so this is
from the point of view of Hattusilis, who is the Hittite king at the time of the treaty, “he fought with “Ramses Meri-Amon,” the Pharaoh Ramses, “the great ruler of Egypt. “But hereafter, from this
day, behold Hattusilis, “the Great Prince of Hatti,
is under a regulation “in order not to permit hostility to occur “between them forever.” Those are big words. “Behold, Hattusilis,” sometimes
it’s spelled Hattusili, “the Great Prince of
Hatti, has set himself “in a regulation with
User-maat-Re Setep-en-Re,” that’s sometimes how
Ramses is referred to, “the Great ruler of Egypt,
beginning from this day, “to cause that good peace and brotherhood “occur between us forever, while he is “in brotherhood with me
and he is at peace with me, “and I am in brotherhood with him “and I am in peace with him forever. “Behold, I, as the Great Prince of Hatti, “am with Ramses Meri-Amon, in good peace “and in good brotherhood. “The children of the
children of the Great Prince “of Hatti are in brotherhood and peace “with the children of the
children of Ramses Meri-Amon, “the Great ruler of Egypt, for they are “in our situation of brotherhood “and our situation of peace. “The land of Egypt,
with the land of Hatti, “shall be at peace and in brotherhood “like unto us forever. “Hostilities shall not
occur between them forever.” So not only are they, and
this is just part of the text, it’s actually quite interesting, do a web search for the
Egyptian-Hittite Treaty text, and you can actually get the whole text, this is just part of an excerpt of it, but they go into much more details about how they might
provide aid for each other, how they’re not going to have conflict, et cetera, et cetera. So I’ll leave you there,
but the important thing to take away is some
of these modern notions of peace treaties and military tactics, they go deep into history, and this is some of the earliest evidence we find, but I would suspect as
we discover more things, we might find even earlier evidence.

20 thoughts on “The Hittite Empire and the Battle of Kadesh | Early Civilizations | World History | Khan Academy

  1. Love these history videos but they are hard to follow because they are not part of an official Khan playlist, neither from this channel or the official Khan history channel. Could you make a playlist with these videos chronologically?

  2. part 5 Quote The thesis presented and evidenced in this volume is that the so-called Hittite Empire, dubbed the Forgotten Empire because it was supposedly discovered less than one hundred years ago, is nothing but the kingdom of the Chaldeans; further, that the pictographic script found on monuments from the western shores of Asia Minor to Babylon, but mainly in central and eastern Anatolia and northern Syria, is most probably the Chaldean script. The "Hittite" emperors are alter egos of the great kings of the Chaldean Dynasty of Babylon. Thus the "Hittite Empire" in its most exalted period, the placement of which in the fourteenth and thirteenth centuries before the present era has caused innumerable difficulties and led to much consternation among archaeologists, vanishes after having "lived" in books and articles for more than a century."[`

    As I said the Indo-Aryan Lydians and Medes were same time as the Chaldeans

    Quote `(Hittites This empire reached its height during the mid-14th century BC under Suppiluliuma I, when it encompassed an area that included most of Asia Minor as well as parts of the ((((northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia)))). After c. 1180 BC, the empire came to an end during the Bronze Age collapse, splintering into several independent "Neo-Hittite" city-states, some of which survived until the 8th century BC. ((((who are the Neo-Hittites? it is the Lydians Quote Lydia arose as a Neo-Hittite kingdom following the collapse of the Hittite Empire in the twelfth century BC. According to Greek sources, the original name of the Lydian kingdom was ((Maionia. `))
    combining form
    a new or revived form of.

  3. Name a European race where the whole race has black hair. Minoans, Etruscans, were branched of the Indo-Aryan Lydians who are the Neo-Hittites

  4. the hittites are the kurds now kurdistan then later turkey took over the power then Iran Iraq and took over the kurdish lands so later they have no proof of nothing the hittites are the kurds now do your research

  5. After Adad Nirari I annexed Mitanni Mursili III wrote him a tablet stating a hilarious reply
    "So you’ve become a “Great King,” have you? But why do you still continue to speak about “brotherhood” and about coming to Mt. Ammana?… For what reason should I call you “brother”?…Do those who are not on familiar terms with each other call each other “brother”? Why then should I call you “brother”? Were you and I born of the same mother? As my grandfather and my father did not call the King of Assyria “brother,” you should not keep writing to me (about) “coming” and “Great King-ship.” It displeases me."

  6. Peace is a long road, but I'm sure we're continuing to make progress on it. How cool to think of a time when this kind of agreement was a new idea! Obviously, it's not easy to live in peace, but formally agreeing to want to seems like an important step.

  7. BCE, ie, Before Common Era. Mmm… And, I wonder, what was "common"? Oh, gosh, it is (still) the birth of Jesus Christ! You know, just as in BC, Before Christ? So, why in the world change something to mean the exact same thing? Do you seriously think there is a need to make such infantile "change"? Are you going to do as in Nineteen Eighty Four and remove BC and AD from all books? This kind of imbecile enfantillage makes me doubt the seriousness of the so-called scholars who make these decisions. Grow up, children!

  8. Well the the word Europe is a non indo European word….aren't gypsies indo european? Just wondering

  9. Dla Polaków – treść traktatu z Kadesz po polsku znajduje się w internecie w obydwu wersjach:
    Oto wersja egipska:
    A to wersja hetycka:
    Warto samemu sprawdzić, jakie ważne kwestie zaprzątały głowy ówczesnych władców świata.

  10. There are layers of influence….Armenian. according to historians and the language tree, we see Armenian is older then Greeks Persians Sumerians and we can find Armenian words and meaning in languages around the world…Here is what Prof Ellis has to say…according to Ellis
    (1861)  through language analysis we observe that under the names of
    Phrygians, Thracians, Pelasgians and Etruscans spread westward from Armenia to
    Italy and Elis claimed that the closest affinities of the Aryan element are the
    Armenians ..other historians that agree are..Hellenthal, Busgy, Brand, Wilson,
    Myers and Falush…

  11. From the book Language as a fingerprint Setyan..mentioned..H.V. Hilprecht(1859-1925) a Clark research
    professor of Assyriology and scientific director Babylonian expedition at the
    University of Penn. argue that the Hittite tongue is Armenian and the Hittites
    themselves were of Armenian stock…
    One of the measurements is the known laws of Armenian
    phonetics and according to Professor Hilprecht ,Hittite writing was invented by
    the forefathers of the modern Armenians..
    Professor Jensen also says.  ‘For almost everything
    that is known in the Hittite language is Old Armenian in form..
    Historian Sayce (1845-1933) also consider Hittite and
    Armenian to be one and the same’.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *